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Hastelloy: Chemical Composition, Physical Properties, Limitations and Applications

Table of Contents

What Is Hastelloy?

Hastelloy is a type of metal made of nickel and other elements like chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. It is very strong and resistant to corrosion even in high temperatures.

Widely used in harsh environments of chemical processing, aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, and other industries, it can endure highly corrosive conditions and high temperatures. This material is great for many uses because it can resist pitting, cracking, and corrosion in most acidic environments.

Some common Hastelloy grades include:hastelloy 1

Here are four unique types of Hastelloy alloys you may be interested in:

  • Hastelloy C-276: a metal alloy that resists corrosion very well in difficult environments, like strong chlorine and acid. It is composed of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum.
  • Hastelloy B-2: This alloy is made of a lot of nickel and molybdenum. It can withstand being in strong gases and acids, like hydrogen chloride gas or sulfuric, acetic, or phosphoric acid.
  • Hastelloy X: Iron, nickel, and chromium are combined in this alloy, providing high-temperature strength and excellent formability. Additionally, it has great oxidation resistance.
  • Hastelloy C-22: This metal is made of tungsten, nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. It is very strong and can resist corrosion in tough places.

The choice of Hastelloy grade depends on the specific requirements of the application, such as corrosion resistance, high-temperature strength, and desired mechanical properties. Consulting with a material expert can help determine the most suitable Hastelloy alloy for your needs.

Why Is This Alloy Named Hastelloy?

The alloy Hastelloy is named after the town of Haynes and the company Haynes International, Inc., where it was first developed. In the early 20th century, Haynes International, Inc. was a leading manufacturer of high-temperature and corrosion-resistant alloys, and the Hastelloy alloys were among their notable creations. The prefix “Hastelloy” was derived from the company’s name “Haynes” and the suffix “-elloy,” commonly used in alloy names. Over time, the Hastelloy brand has become synonymous with high-performance alloys known for their exceptional resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and other forms of chemical attack, making them widely used in industries such as chemical processing, aerospace, and oil and gas.hastelloy 2

How Many Types of Hastelloy Are There?

Hastelloy alloys consist of different types recognized as designated for specific purpose and conditions. Included among the outstanding variants are Hastelloy C-276 (cited for its wide corrosion resistance in aggressive media), Hastelloy C-22 (regarded to be resistant to both oxidizing and reducing environments), and Hastelloy B-2 (well renowned for its much greater resistance to reducing acids). On top of that, Hastelloy X is the best option in high-temperature uses, and Hastelloy G-30 is the best resistor against phosphoric and nitric acids. However, gastelloy B-3 exhibits improved temperature stability and resistance to intergranular corrosion. These are one of the alloys, in addition to others, used to address the specific needs of the industry, from chemical processing to aerospace, offering tailor-made solutions for extraordinary conditions.

Limitations of Hastelloyhastelloy 3

Hastelloy alloys, known for the unparalleled performance in a highly corrosive environment at elevated temperatures, have some limitations. Additionally, apart from being expensive than standard stainless steel and fabrication challenges caused by their high strength and work-hardening hardness properties, these barriers can still exist. More so, the materials have to be accessible and versatile to the different chemicals in which case, the material selection should be done with caution. These alloys, however, have a great tensile and corrosion resistance at higher temperatures which is not the case for titanium-based alloys uniquely designed for high temperature loadings. Nevertheless, Hastelloy weldable alloys are fast becoming the choice of numerous industries in this respect, due to their high resistance to a wide spectrum of environments.

Chemical Composition of Hastelloy hastelloy 4

Element

Min

Max

Molybdenum

15.0

17.0

Chromium

14.5

16.5

Iron

4.00

7.00

Tungsten

3.00

4.50

Cobalt

2.50

Carbon

0.02

Silicon

0.08

Manganese

1.00

Vanadium

0.35

Phosphorus

0.03

Sulfur

0.03

Nickel

Remainder

The Role of Various Elements in Hastelloyhastelloy 5

Elements such as manganese, chromium, molybdenum among others play key roles in what Hastelloy alloys comprise of. Nickel represents the main material which procures excellent corrosion resistance and high working temperatures. Chromium enables the brightening of oxidation and resistance to corrosion, while molybdenum provides protection against pitting and crevice corrosion in acid and chlorine environments. This is due to cobalt and tungsten which improve strength and are particularly effective at elevated temperatures. They also increase resistance to deformation and creep. Iron is also a minor component to act as reinforcing material and to keep the whole structure strong and stable. Blending these ingredients in exact proportions yields Hastelloy alloys having exceptional corrosion resistance, high-temperature performance, and strength for various rigorous and extreme service conditions and environments.

Physical Properties of Hastelloy hastelloy 6

Physical Properties

°F

British Units

°C

Metric Units

Density

72

0.321 lb./in.(3)

22

8.89 g/cm(3)

Melting Range

2415-
2500

 

1323-
1371

 

Electrical
Resistivity

75

51 microhm-in.

24

1.30 microhm-m

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean Coefficient
of Thermal
Expansion

75-200

6.2 microin./in.-°F

24-93

11.2 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-400

6.7 microin./in.-°F

24-204

12.0 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-600

7.1 microin./in.-°F

24-316

12.8 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-800

7.3 microin./in.-°F

24-427

13.2 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-1000

7.4 microin./in.-°F

24-538

13.4 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-1200

7.8 microin./in.-°F

24-649

14.1 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-1400

8.3 microin./in.-°F

24-760

14.9 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-1600

8.8 microin./in.-°F

24-871

15.9 X 10(-6)m/m-K

75-1700

8.9 microin./in.-°F

24-927

16.0 X 10(-6)m/m-K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thermal
Conductivity

-270

50 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

-168

7.2 W/m-K

-100

60 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

-73

8.6 W/m-K

0

65 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

32

9.4 W/m-K

100

71 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

38

10.2 W/m-K

200

77 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

93

11.1 W/m-K

400

90 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

204

13.0 W/m-K

600

104 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

316

15.0 W/m-K

800

117 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

427

16.9 W/m-K

1000

132 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

538

19.0 W/m-K

1200

145 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

649

20.9 W/m-K

1400

159 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

760

22.9 W/m-K

1600

173 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

871

24.9 W/m-K

1800

185 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

982

26.7 W/m-K

2000

195 Btu-in/ft²-hr-°F

1093

28.1 W/m-K

Can Hastelloy Used in Casting?

Yes, Hastelloy can be cast using appropriate casting methods. Hastelloy is a type of metal that is made with nickel. It can resist rust and damage, even in very hot temperatures. It also has very good strength. The specific alloy composition of Hastelloy can vary, such as Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy B-3, or Hastelloy X, each designed for specific applications and environments.

Casting Hastelloy involves many steps. First, you need to create a pattern and prepare the mold. Then, melt the metal and pour it into the mold. As it cools down, you can take it out of the mold, clean it up and inspect it for any mistakes. Finally, use it for its intended purpose. However, due to the high melting points and unique properties of Hastelloy, specialized equipment, expertise, and handling precautions may be necessary.

The Application of Hastelloy Casting

Hastelloy castings are used in many different industries. These include chemical processing, petrochemicals, oil and gas, aerospace, marine, and power generation. They are used for components subjected to highly corrosive environments, high temperatures, and aggressive chemical exposures. Examples of Hastelloy castings include pump and valve components, reactor vessels, heat exchangers, turbine blades, furnace parts

It’s important to note that the specific casting process and considerations may vary depending on the chosen Hastelloy alloy, component design, and application requirements. Working with experienced foundries or experts knowledgeable in Hastelloy casting is crucial to ensure high-quality and reliable castings.

Hastelloy casting finds extensive application in industries that require exceptional corrosion resistance and high-temperature performance. Some of the common applications of Hastelloy castings include:

  • Chemical Processing: Hastelloy castings are widely used in chemical processing industries due to their excellent resistance to a wide range of corrosive chemicals. They are utilized in equipment such as heat exchangers, reactors, valves, pumpsand piping systems.
  • Petrochemical Industry: Hastelloy castings play a vital role in the petrochemical industry, where they are employed in components exposed to aggressive environments and high temperatures. They find application in heat exchangers, furnace parts, reactors, piping systems, and catalyst support grids.
  • Oil and Gas Industry: Hastelloy castings are utilized in the oil and gas industry, particularly in offshore and sour gas environments. They are used for components such as downhole tools, valves, pumps, tubing, and fittings, where resistance to corrosion, high pressures, and hydrogen sulfide is crucial.
  • Aerospace Industry: Hastelloy castings find application in the aerospace industry, particularly in gas turbine engines. They are used for turbine blades, combustor liners, transition ducts, and other critical components that require high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and durability.
  • Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology: Hastelloy castings are employed in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, where corrosion resistance and cleanability are vital. They are used for equipment such as reactors, vessels, agitators, and piping systems involved in the production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals.
  • Power Generation: Hastelloy castings play a significant role in power generation applications, including nuclear power plants and fossil fuel power plants. They are utilized in components such as steam generators, heat exchangers, boiler tubes, and turbine blades, where resistance to high temperatures and corrosive environments is essential.
  • Marine and Offshore: Hastelloy castings are used in marine and offshore applications, including seawater handling systems, desalination plants, and offshore platforms. They offer excellent resistance to seawater corrosion and are employed in components such as pumps, valves, heat exchangers, and underwater equipment.

Hastelloy castings offer a versatile range of applications, thanks to their exceptional qualities of corrosion resistance and high-temperature stability. The alloys are ideal for industries that demand rugged reliability and durability in the face of harsh environments.hastelloy 7

Processing Challenges of Hastelloy

Hastelloy alloys which are well-known for they corrosion resistivity in hazardous conditions however pose processing challenges during machining as they work harden rapidly which need optimum tool selection and parameter adjustment. Since these materials have high strength and hardness, they need different techniques like forging and welding, which will be definitely different from what has been used before to prevent cracking and ensure dimensional integrity. Preparing smooth surface finishes is a hard task because the material is too tough, therefore the operations must be repeated. Besides, the high cost of Hastelloy alloys and the need for specialized machineries and expertise makes tissue processing very complex. Nevertheless, they are definitely an indispensable tool in the industry of chemical processing and aerospace, provided that a detailed planning and optimization of processing can help to prevent the processing difficulties.

Applications of Hastelloyhastelloy 8

Hastelloy alloys are highly valued for their exceptional corrosion-resistance properties that are widely utilized in the chemical processing industry, aerospace, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, power generation, pollution control, and nuclear fields of applications. They provide corrosion protection for equipment equipment such as reactors, turbines, pipelines, and heat exchangers and ensuring smooth operation of such equipment in harsh and highly corrosive surroundings.

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