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Stellite: Composition, Properties, and Applications in Casting

Table of Content

What Is Stellite?

Stellite is a group of cobalt-chromium alloys renowned for their exceptional wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and high-temperature performance. Developed by Elwood Haynes in the early 20th century, Stellite alloys typically consist of cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, with varying additions of other elements such as carbon, molybdenum, and nickel. These alloys are renowned for their hardness, toughness, and resistance to abrasion, making them ideal for applications in harsh and abrasive environments, including cutting tools, saw blades, valves, and aerospace components. Stellite alloys are known for their ability to maintain their properties even at high temperatures and under extreme mechanical stress, making them indispensable in industries such as aerospace, oil and gas, and manufacturing.

Why This Alloy Called Stellite?

The alloy Stellite is named after the American metallurgist Elwood Haynes’ village, Stellite, which is situated in Pennsylvania, United States. Elwood Haynes was the inventor of this cobalt-chromium alloy, and he named it after the place where he lived and conducted his research. Stellite alloys were developed in the early 20th century and have since become well-known for their exceptional wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and high-temperature performance, finding extensive use in various industrial applications, including cutting tools, saw blades, valves, and aerospace components.

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Are There Different Types of Stellite?

Yes, there are various types and variations of Stellite alloys, each with different chemical compositions tailored for specific purposes. They can be categorized into high carbon for high-wear applications, low carbon for high-temperature uses, and low carbon with higher chromium to combat corrosion.

What Are the Chemical Compositions of Stellite?

Stellite alloys contain elements such as cobalt, chromium, carbon, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, silicon, sulfur, phosphorus, manganese, boron, aluminum, iron, nickel, and others in varying proportions, depending on the specific alloy type. The following is the typical chemical composition of Stellite:



Cobalt, Co


Chromium, Cr

28 – 32%

Tungsten, W

11 – 13%

Carbon, C

2 – 3 %

Silicon, Si


Iron, Fe


Nickel, Ni




What Are the Characteristics of Stellite?

Stellite alloys are non-magnetic, highly corrosion-resistant, and have an extremely high melting point. They are exceptionally hard and tough, making them challenging and expensive to machine.

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What Are the Mechanical Properties of Stellite?

Stellite alloys are known for their high wear resistance, mechanical strength, and durability, making them suitable for demanding applications. The specific mechanical properties may vary depending on the alloy composition. Here are the mechanical properties of a Stellite alloy:





8.69 g/cm³

0.314 lb/in³

Hardness, Rockwell C



Tensile strength

1195 MPa

173 ksi

Yield strength

1050 MPa

152 ksi

Modulus of elasticity

230 GPa

33.4×106 psi

Elongation at break



Is Stellite Alloy Magnetic?

No, Stellite alloys are non-magnetic due to their cobalt-chromium composition.

What are the Manufacturing Processes of Stellite Alloys?

Stellite alloys can be produced through various methods, including wrought or hot forging, hard-faced deposit, powder metal, and casting. The choice of manufacturing process depends on the intended application. 

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In Which Fields Can Stellite Alloy Be Applied?

Stellite alloys find applications in a wide range of industries, including saw teeth, hard facing, machine parts, internal combustion engine components, medical devices (such as artificial hip joints), and turning tools for lathes.

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Is Stellite Alloy Suitable for Casting?

Yes, Stellite alloys can be cast. Casting is one of the manufacturing methods used to produce Stellite components, especially for complex shapes and larger parts.

What Is Stellite Used in Casting?

Stellite casting is a manufacturing process that involves the use of Stellite, a group of cobalt-chromium alloys renowned for their exceptional wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and high-temperature performance. These alloys are highly sought after in industries such as aerospace, oil and gas drilling, and industrial machinery where these properties are critical.

In the Stellite casting process, molten Stellite alloy is poured into a mold to create specific shapes and components. This method allows for the customization of castings to meet the specific requirements of diverse industries and applications, especially when materials need to endure harsh conditions and abrasive environments.

Stellite casting is valued for its ability to produce durable and wear-resistant parts, making it a preferred choice for applications where traditional materials may not offer the required performance and longevity.

Benefits of Using Stellite in Casting

Stellite casting, often referred to as Stellite alloy, is a remarkable material known for its exceptional properties that make it a preferred choice for various applications. Much like the alloy mentioned earlier, Stellite casting offers a unique combination of features that contribute to its versatility and widespread use. Let’s delve into these characteristics:

  1. Corrosion Resistance: Stellite casting exhibits outstanding resistance to corrosion, making it suitable for a wide range of environments, from chemical processing plants to aerospace applications. Its ability to withstand harsh conditions ensures longevity and reliability.

  2. Formability: Stellite casting is highly formable, allowing it to be shaped into intricate and custom designs through processes like casting, forging, and machining. This versatility allows for the creation of complex components tailored to specific requirements.

  3. Weldability: Stellite casting shares with the alloy the advantage of excellent weldability. This feature simplifies the fabrication and repair of Stellite components, offering a cost-effective solution for maintaining and extending the life of equipment.

  4. Heat Resistance: Stellite casting can endure high temperatures without significant loss of mechanical properties. Its heat resistance makes it ideal for applications involving extreme temperatures, such as turbine blades, combustion chambers, and exhaust valves in the aerospace and energy industries.

  5. Strength and Ductility: Stellite casting provides an excellent balance between strength and ductility, ensuring structural integrity and remarkable strain resistance under load. This feature is especially crucial in demanding applications where components are subjected to heavy stress and wear.

  6. Ease of Cleaning: The smooth surface of Stellite casting facilitates easy cleaning and maintenance, which is essential in industries where hygiene and sanitation are of utmost importance. It is often utilized in food processing equipment, medical instruments, and other critical applications.

  7. Non-Magnetic Properties: Stellite casting, in its annealed state, is generally non-magnetic. This characteristic is valuable in applications where magnetic materials could interfere with equipment performance, such as precision instruments and electronic devices.

Overall, Stellite casting stands as a versatile and robust material choice for a diverse array of applications. Whether in the production of turbine components, medical instruments, or industrial machinery, its unique combination of features ensures reliability and performance in the face of challenging conditions. Stellite casting remains a cornerstone in the world of materials engineering.

Does Stellite Alloy Require Special Casting Processes?

Casting Stellite alloys may require specialized equipment and techniques due to their hardness. High-performance processing equipment and specialized machining tools are often used.

What Are the Benefits of Casting with Stellite?

Casting with Stellite alloys allows for the production of complex and large parts with high wear resistance and corrosion resistance. It is a cost-effective method for creating customized components.

What Surface Finishing Can Be Applied to Stellite Casting Parts?

Stellite casting parts can undergo various surface finishing processes, including grinding and polishing, to achieve the desired surface quality and precision.

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Can Stellite Casting Be Customized?

Yes, Stellite casting can be customized to meet specific design and performance requirements, making it suitable for a wide range of applications across various industries. When customizing Stellite casting parts, you can consider the following customization options to ensure that the final product meets your specific requirements:

  • Alloy Composition: Tailor the chemical composition of the Stellite alloy to optimize properties such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and high-temperature performance based on your application.
  • Casting Method: Choose the most suitable casting method, whether it’s investment casting, sand casting, or another technique, depending on the complexity and size of the part.
  • Part Design: Customize the design of the casting to meet your specific application needs, including the shape, dimensions, and features required for your intended use.
  • Heat Treatment: Specify heat treatment processes such as annealing or quenching to enhance the mechanical properties and durability of the casting.
  • Surface Finish: Determine the desired surface finish, whether it’s a smooth, polished surface or a textured one, to meet your functional and aesthetic requirements.
  • Tolerance and Precision: Define the tolerances and precision levels required for your Stellite casting to ensure it fits seamlessly into your assembly or system.
  • Quality Control: Establish rigorous quality control standards and testing procedures to guarantee the reliability and performance of the custom Stellite casting.
  • Quantity and Batch Size: Decide on the quantity and batch size of the castings needed to fulfill your project requirements, whether it’s a one-time order or ongoing production.
  • Lead Time: Plan the production schedule and lead time for the custom casting to align with your project timelines and deadlines.
  • Cost Optimization: Work with your manufacturer to explore cost-effective solutions without compromising the quality and performance of the Stellite casting.

stellite casting 6Conclusion

Stellite casting offers a versatile solution for industries and applications that demand high wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and non-magnetic properties. The unique combination of cobalt and chromium in Stellite alloys makes them an invaluable choice for challenging environments. With customization options and precise machining, Stellite alloys continue to play a vital role in enhancing the durability and performance of critical components across various sectors.

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