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Titanium Grade 2: Composition, Properties, and Processing Challenges

titanium grade 2

Overview

HDC has over a decade of experience in the custom metal components field. We possess precision 4-axis and 5-axis machine tools, automated CNC machining centers, and a professional design and production team. We can provide you with various machining processes, including CNC milling, CNC turning, laser cutting, metal casting, and more, to craft your Titanium Grade 2 components to perfection, tailored to your specific requirements.

What Is Titanium Grade 2?

Titanium Grade 2, is unalloyed titanium. It‘s particularly similar to Titanium Grade 1. People call it the “labor force” of industrial pure titanium. Compared with grade 1, it has higher strength and outstanding cold forming performance. It is the first choice in many application fields, such as the Aerospace industry, electricity generation, Chemical Machining, and more.titanium grade 2 1

The Difference Between Titanium Grade 1 and Grade 2

Grade 1 and 2 are majorly identical titanium grades but Grade 1 typically has a bit higher oxygen content and therefore shows slightly different properties. Grade 1 titanium has lower oxygen content offering slightly higher ductility and formability where as the Grade 2 titanium has slightly higher strength owing to its slightly higher oxygen content. Grade 1 has better ductility and weldability as well as an advantage with chemical processing; while grade 2 has better strength and is preferred in aerospace, medical, and automotive applications. In sum, select one between the two qualities relies on the exact application formability, tensile strength and other mechanical performance.titanium grade 2 2

What Are the Disadvantages of Titanium Grade 2?

Though Titanium Grade 2 can also be considered in many ways a better choice, its disadvantages still exist. The drawback is that it is considerably weaker compared to titanium alloys like Grade 5, which mean limited use in cases that require high strength-to-weight ratios. Secondly, it can be more expensive than the other materials such as stainless steel or aluminum entities, and this might affect budget when constructing. Besides, Titanium Grade 2 can be difficult to machine due to a thermal conductivity and potential for work hardening, which results in prominent tool wear and machining costs. Again, while weldable, it needs stringent welding processes so as to prevent embrittlement or contamination which eventually can lead to impairment of its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, its cold workability is rather limited, making cold-forming as well as shaping both difficult jobs and possible to lose the strength of the material by producing a crack. Despite the seamless nature of these joins, titanium grade 2 still comes with its share of limitations; yet, it remains very effective as far as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and lightweight usage are concerned in myriad of applications.titanium grade 2 3

Chemical Composition of Titanium Grade 2

Chemical ElementContent (%)
Titanium, Ti≥ 98.9
Iron, Fe0- 0.30
Oxygen, O0-0.25
Carbon, C0-0.08
Nitrogen, N 0-0.03
Hydrogen, H0- 0.015

The Influence of Lesser Content of Other Elements on Titanium Grade 2titanium grade 2 4

(Lesser amounts of other elements only make a slight difference with Titanium Grade 2), as Grade 2 titanium is a commercial pure titanium alloy whose main component is titanium with minor amounts of other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, and iron. Ti-6Al-4V is made up of these elements in a very very low concentration, and thus Ti-6Al-4V have no noticeable effects on the overall properties of Grade 2 titanium. At the same time, the metal is not pure and has foreign elements which may detrimentally affect the material’s mechanical properties, including strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance. Hence, quality control of impurities and alloying elements is fundamental in order to supply high-purity and the specifically desired properties Titanium Grade 2. It should be noted that Grade 2 titanium is normally selected for its outstanding corrosion resistance as well as its biocompatibility and low density as it is applicable in various industrial fields like aerospace, pharmaceutical, and chemical processing.

Mechanical Properties of Titanium Grade 2

PropertiesMetricImperial
Tensile strength485 MPa70300 psi
Yield strength345 MPa50000 psi
Poisson’s ratio0.34-0.400.34-0.40
Elastic modulus105 – 120 GPa15200 – 17400 ksi
Elongation at break28%28%
Hardness (HV)160-200160-200

titanium grade 2 5

Physical Properties of Titanium Grade 2 

DensityBeta TransusMelting PointThermal conductivityElastic Resistvity
4.51g / cm³915 °C1660 °C21.79 W m-1 °C-10.53 µΩ/m

Thermal Properties of Titanium Grade 2titanium grade 2 6

 Thermal PropertiesMetricEnglish
Heat of Fusion 325 J/g140 BTU/lb

CTE, linear

8.60 µm/m-°C
@Temperature 0.000 – 100 °C
4.78 µin/in-°F
@Temperature 32.0 – 212 °F
9.20 µm/m-°C
@Temperature 0.000 – 315 °C
5.11 µin/in-°F
@Temperature 32.0 – 599 °F
9.70 µm/m-°C
@Temperature 0.000 – 540 °C
5.39 µin/in-°F
@Temperature 32.0 – 1000 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

0.523 J/g-°C
@Temperature 20.0 °C
0.125 BTU/lb-°F
@Temperature 68.0 °F
0.560 J/g-°C
@Temperature 200 °C
0.134 BTU/lb-°F
@Temperature 392 °F
0.620 J/g-°C
@Temperature 400 °C
0.148 BTU/lb-°F
@Temperature 752 °F
0.670 J/g-°C
@Temperature 540 °C
0.160 BTU/lb-°F
@Temperature 1000 °F
0.690 J/g-°C
@Temperature 600 °C
0.165 BTU/lb-°F
@Temperature 1110 °F
Thermal Conductivity 16.4 W/m-K114 BTU-in/hr-ft²-°F
Melting Point <= 1665 °C<= 3029 °F
Liquidus 1665 °C3029 °F
Beta Transus 913 °C1680 °F

Methods Suitable for Processing Titanium Grade 2titanium grade 2 7

The processing of Titanium Grade 2 utilizes a set of techniques depending on its characteristics. Machining (turning and milling) is widespread but needs to take its time as the material has low thermal conductivity. Only welding technics such as GTAW or EBW lead to risks for contamination and oxidation of the material, thus, precautions have to be taken. Forming processes which can be cold and hot can be used, additional annealing might be necessary to achieve ductility. Heat treating processes (annealing and stress relief) are employed to develop desirable mechanical properties. Surface modifications, such as polishing and anodizing, provide increased corrosion resistance and appearance. By contrast, machine manufacturing techniques like SLM and EBM are very flexible with structures with complex geometries. These methods are typically used for the fabrication of parts for aerospace, medical, and chemical apparatus.

Applications of Titanium Grade 2titanium grade 2 8

Extensive use of Titanium Grade 2 is demonstrated through its remarkable features in various industries. It has been used by the aerospace industries in airframe structures and engine parts, the healthcare sector due to its biocompatibility and chemical processes for corrosion-resistant equipment. Besides, it is also used in marine situations, construction buildings, and sports gears because it is durable and resistant to electrochemical oxidation. In general titanium alloy Grade 2 stands out as an irreplaceable material in the industries such as aerospace that need lightweight, corrosion-resistant and have high-performance materials.

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